Wednesday, February 27, 2013

February 27 in history


FEB 26      INDEX      FEB 28



380 – Edict of Thessalonica: Emperor Theodosius I, with co-emperors Gratian and Valentinian II, declare their wish that all Roman citizens convert to trinitarian Christianity.

425 – The University of Constantinople is founded by Emperor Theodosius II at the urging of his wife Aelia Eudocia.

907 – Abaoji, a Khitan chieftain, is enthroned as Emperor Taizu, establishing the Liao dynasty in northern China.

1560 – The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Lords of the Congregation of Scotland.

1594 – Henry IV is crowned King of France.

1617 – Sweden and Russia sign the Treaty of Stolbovo, ending the Ingrian War and shutting Russia out of the Baltic Sea.

1626 – Yuan Chonghuan is appointed Governor of Liaodong, after he led the Chinese into a great victory against the Manchurians under Nurhaci.

1700 – The island of New Britain is discovered.

1776 – American Revolutionary War: Commander Richard Caswell leads 1,000 Patriot troops in the successful Battle of Moores Creek over 1,600 British Loyalists. It would go down in history as the first American victory in the first organized campaign of the Revolutionary War.

1782 – American Revolutionary War: The House of Commons of Great Britain votes against further war in America.

1801 – Pursuant to the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801, Washington, D.C. is placed under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress.

1809 – Action of 27 February 1809: Captain Bernard Dubourdieu captures HMS Proserpine.

1812 – Argentine War of Independence: Manuel Belgrano raises the Flag of Argentina in the city of Rosario for the first time.

1812 – Poet Lord Byron gives his first address as a member of the House of Lords, in defense of Luddite violence against Industrialism in his home county of Nottinghamshire.

1827:  A group of masked and costumed students danced through the streets of New Orleans, Louisiana, marking the beginning of the city's famous Mardi Gras celebrations.

1829 – Battle of Tarqui is fought.

1844 – The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti.

The Cooper Union in 1888
1860 – Abraham Lincoln makes a speech at Cooper Union that is largely responsible for his election to the Presidency.

1861 – Russian troops fire on a crowd in Warsaw protesting against Russian rule over Poland, killing five protesters.

1864 – American Civil War: The first Union inmates arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville in southern Georgia, which was still under construction. Andersonville became synonymous with death as nearly a quarter of its inmates died in captivity. Henry Wirz, who ran Andersonville, was executed after the war for the brutality and mistreatment committed under his command.

1870 – The current flag of Japan is first adopted as the national flag for Japanese merchant ships.

1881 – First Boer War: The Battle of Majuba Hill takes place.

1897:  Great Britain agreed to U.S. arbitration in a border dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana, defusing a dangerous U.S.-British diplomatic crisis.

1898 – King George I of Greece survives an assassination attempt.

1900 – Second Boer War: In South Africa, British military leaders receive an unconditional notice of surrender from Boer General Piet Cronjé at the Battle of Paardeberg.

1900 – The British Labour Party is founded.

1900 – Fußball-Club Bayern München is founded.

1902 – Second Boer War: Australian soldiers Harry 'Breaker' Morant and Peter Handcock are executed in Pretoria for war crimes.

1916:  After completing their conquest of Serbia and Montenegro, the Austro-Hungarian army turned its attentions toward Albania, occupying the coastal city of Durazzo on the Adriatic Sea.

1921 – The International Working Union of Socialist Parties is founded in Vienna.

1922 – In Washington, D.C., a challenge to the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote, is unanimously rebuffed by the Supreme Court of the United States in Leser v. Garnett.

1933 – Reichstag fire: Germany's parliament building in Berlin, the Reichstag, is set on fire, allegedly by the Communists. Marinus van der Lubbe, a young Dutch Communist claims responsibility. The Nazis used the fire to solidify their power and eliminate the communists as political rivals.

1939 – United States labor law: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that sit-down strikes violate property owners' rights and are therefore illegal.

1940 – Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discover carbon-14.

1942 – World War II: The U.S. Navy's first aircraft carrier, the USS Langley (CV-1/AV-3), is attacked by dive bombers of the Japanese 21st and 23rd Naval Air Flotillas and so badly damaged that she has to be scuttled by her escorts. All of its 32 aircraft are lost.

1942 – World War II: During the Battle of the Java Sea, an Allied strike force is defeated by a Japanese task force in the Java Sea in the Dutch East Indies.

1943 – An explosion at the Montana Coal and Iron Company's Smith Mine #3 between Bearcreek and Washoe, Montana, kills 74 workers. It was the worst mining disaster in Montana's history.

1943 – The Rosenstrasse protest starts in Berlin.

1951 – The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution, limiting Presidents to two terms, is ratified.

1955 – Soviet Union regional elections, 1955.

1960:  The underdog U.S. Olympic hockey team defeated the Soviet Union in the semifinals at the Winter Games in Squaw Valley, California.  The next day, the U.S. beat Czechoslovakia to win its first-ever Olympic gold medal in hockey.

1961 – The first congress of the Spanish Trade Union Organisation is inaugurated.

1962 – South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem survives another coup attempt when Republic of Vietnam Air Force pilots Lieutenants Pham Phu Quoc and Nguyen Van Cu try to kill him and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by bombing and strafing Independence Palace in Saigon (the presidential palace).

1963 – The Dominican Republic receives its first democratically elected president, Juan Bosch, since the end of the dictatorship led by Rafael Trujillo.

1964 – The Government of Italy announces that it is accepting suggestions on how to save the renowned Leaning Tower of Pisa from toppling over.

1965:  The U.S. State Department releases a 14,000-word report entitled "Aggression from the North--The Record of North Vietnam's Campaign to Conquer South Vietnam."

1969:  Communist forces shelled 30 military installations and nine towns in South Vietnam, in what became known as the "Post-Tet Offensive." U.S. sources in Saigon put American losses in this latest offensive at between 250 and 300, compared with enemy casualties totaling 5,300. South Vietnamese officials report 200 civilians killed and 12,700 made homeless.

1971 – Doctors in the first Dutch abortion clinic (the Mildredhuis in Arnhem) start to perform aborti provocati.

1972:  As the concluding act of President Richard Nixon's historic visit to communist China, the president and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai issued a joint statement summarizing their agreements (and disagreements) of the past week. The "Shanghai Communique" set into motion the slow process of the normalization of relations between the two former Cold War enemies

1973 – On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, some 200 Sioux Native Americans, led by members of the American Indian Movement (AIM), occupy Wounded Knee, the site of the infamous 1890 massacre of 300 Sioux by the U.S. Seventh Cavalry.  The AIM members, some of them armed, take 11 residents of the historic Oglala Sioux settlement hostage as local authorities and federal agents descend on the reservation.

1976 – The formerly Spanish territory of Western Sahara, under the auspices of the Polisario Front declares independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

1986 – The United States Senate allows its debates to be televised on a trial basis.

1988 – Sumgait pogrom: The Armenian community of Sumgait in Azerbaijan is targeted in a violent massacre.

1989 – Venezuela is rocked by the Caracazo riots.

1991 – Gulf War: U.S. President George H. W. Bush announces that "Kuwait is liberated".

1995 – Zakho: A terrorist explosion in a market in the city of Zakho leaves about 100 dead and 150 wounded.

2002 – Ryanair Flight 296 catches fire at London Stansted Airport. Subsequent investigations criticize Ryanair's handling of the evacuation.

2002 – Godhra train burning: A Muslim mob torches a train returning from Ayodhya, killing 59 Hindu pilgrims.

2004 – A bombing of a Superferry by Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines' worst terrorist attack kills 116.

2004 – The initial version of the John Jay Report, with details about the Catholic sexual abuse scandal in the United States, is released.

2007 – The Chinese Correction: The Shanghai Stock Exchange falls 9%, the largest drop in ten years.

2010 – An earthquake measuring 8.8 on the moment magnitude scale strikes central parts of Chile leaving over 500 victims, and thousands injured. The quake triggered a tsunami which struck Hawaii shortly after.

2012 – A section of a nine-story apartment building in the city of Astrakhan, Russia, collapses in a natural gas explosion, killing ten people and injuring at least 12 others.

2013 – At least 19 people are killed when a fire breaks out at an illegal market in Kolkata, India.

2013 – Five people (including the perpetrator) are killed and five others injured in a shooting at a factory in Menznau, Switzerland.

2015 – A gunman kills seven people then himself in a series of shootings in Tyrone, Missouri.

Saints' Days and Holy Days

Traditional Western

Margaret of Cortona, Penitent.      Semi-double.  (February 28 in Leap-Year.)

In Leap-Year February has 29 days, the additional day being inserted after the 23rd.

Contemporary Western

Gabriel of Our Lady of Sorrows

Anglican, Episcopal, Lutheran

George Herbert (Anglican Communion)

Eastern Orthodox

February 27 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)


Martyrs Julian and his disciple Eunos (Kronion), at Alexandria (250- 252)
Martyr Gelasius the Actor, of Heliopolis (297)
Martyrs Abundius, Alexander, Antigonus, Calanus, Januarius, Makarios, Severianus,
      Titianus and Fortunatus, and those martyred with them (c. 284-305)
Martyr Nesius, by whipping
Saint Macarius of Jerusalem, Bishop of Jerusalem (334)
Saint Thalelaeus of Syria, hermit, of Gabala in Syria (c. 460)
Saints Asclepius and Jacob of Nimouza, monks near Cyrrhus (5th c.)
Saint Stephen, monk, of Constantinople (614)
Venerable Procopius the Confessor, of Decapolis (c. 750)
Saint Timothy of Caesarea, monk.

Pre-Schism Western Saints

Saint Honorina (Honorine), an early martyr in the north of France
Saint Comgan, Abbot of Glenthsen or Killeshin in Ireland (c. 565)
Saint Leander of Seville, Archbishop of Seville (600)
Saint Baldomerus (Galmier), by trade a locksmith in Lyons in France,
      who entered the monastery of St Justus (c. 650)
Saint Ælfnoth of Stowe (Alnoth, a hermit at Stowe near Bugbrooke,
      martyred by robbers (c. 700)
Saint Herefrith of Louth, Bishop of Lincolnshire (c. 873)
Saint John of Gorze, Abbot of Gorze (c. 975)

Post-Schism Orthodox Saints

Venerable Titus, presbyter of Kiev Caves Monastery (1190)
Saint Titus the Soldier, monk of the Kiev Caves (14th c.)
Saint Pitirim, Bishop of Tambov (1698)
New Martyr Elias of Trebizond (1749)
Venerable Archimandrite Photius of the Yuriev Monastery, Novgorod (1838)
Saint Raphael of Brooklyn, Good Shepherd of the Lost Sheep in America (1915)

New Martyrs and Confessors

New Hieromartyr Sergei Uvitsky, Priest (1932)
New Hieromartyr Peter Uspensky, Priest (1938)
Martyr Michael Markov (1938)

Other commemorations

Twelve Holy Greek Architects of the Kiev Caves Lavra
Repose of Monk Anthony of Valaam Monastery (1848)
Repose of Hieromonk Justinian of Valaam Monastery (1966)
Repose of Archimandrite Alypy (Voronov) of the Pskov-Caves Monastery (1975)

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